Brown, 71, underwent surgery at Atlanta's Midtown Urology Surgical Center Wednesday and was released later the same day, RollingStone.com reported Thursday.
"We expect a full recovery," Dr. James Bennett said. "With proper follow-up and care, we can also expect a full cure."
Doctors said "The Godfather of Soul" was told to take it easy for about three weeks.
In announcing he had cancer last week, Brown said: "I have overcome a lot of things in my life. I will overcome this as well."
Brown plans a concert tour of Asia and Australia early next year.
2014: The Year in Music [PHOTOS]