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List of Nobel winners in medicine

  |   Oct. 6, 2003 at 8:06 AM
STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 6 (UPI) -- List of the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, established in 1901 by Alfred Nobel.

2003 -- Paul C. Lauterbur, United States; Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom.

2002 -- Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom; H. Robert Horvitz, United States; John E. Sulston, United Kingdom.

2001 -- Leland H. Hartwell, United States; R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt, United Kingdom; Paul M. Nurse, United Kingdom.

2000 -- Arvid Carlsson, Sweden; Paul Greengard, United States; Eric R. Kandel, United States.

1999 -- Guenter Blobel, United States.

1998 -- Robert F. Furchgott, United States; Louis J. Ignarro, United States; Ferid Murad, United States.

1997 -- Stanley B. Prusiner, United States.

1996 -- Peter C. Doherty, Austria; Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland.

1995 -- Edward B. Lewis, United States; Christiane Nuesslein-Volhard, Germany; Eric F. Wieschaus, United States.

1994 -- Alfred G. Gilman, United States; Martin Rodbell, United States.

1993 -- Richard . Roberts, United Kingdom; Phillip A. Sharp, United States.

1992 -- Edmond H. Fischer, United States and Switzerland; Edwin G. Krebs, United States.

1991 -- Erwin Neher, Germany; Bert Sakmann, Germany.

1990 -- Joseph E. Murray, United States; E. Donnell Thomas, United States.

1989 -- J. Michael Bishop, United States; Harold E. Varmus, United States.

1988 -- Sir James W. Black, United Kingdom; Gertrude B. Elion, United States; George H. Hitchings, United States.

1987 -- Susumu Tonegawa, Japan.

1986 -- Stanley Cohen, United States; Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and Untied States.

1985 --Michael S. Brown, United States; Joseph L. Goldstein, United States.

1984 -- Niels K. Jerne, Denmark; Georges J.F. Koehler, Germany; Cesar Milstein, United Kingdom and Argentina.

1983 -- Barbara McClintock, United States.

1982 -- Sune K. Bergstrom, Sweden; Bengt I. Samuelson, Sweden; John R. Vane, United Kingdom.

1981 -- Roger W. Sperry, United States; David H. Hubel, United States; Torsten N. Wiesel, Sweden.

1980 -- Baruj Benacerraf, United States; Jean Dausset, France; George D. Snell, United States.

1979 -- Allan M. Cormack, United States; Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom.

1978 -- Werner Arber, Switzerland; Daniel Nathans, United States; Hamilton O. Smith, United States.

1977 -- Roger Guillemin, United States; Andrew V. Schally, United States; Rosalyn Yalow, United States.

1976 -- Baruch S. Blumberg, United States; D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States.

1975 -- David Baltimore, United States; Renato Dulbecco, United States; Howard Martin Temin, United States.

1974 -- Albert Claude, Belgium; Christian de Duve, Belgium; George E. Palade, United States.

1973 -- Karl von Frisch, Germany; Konrad Lorenz, Austria; Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom.

1972 -- Gerald M. Edelman, United States; Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom.

1971 -- Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States.

1970 -- Sir Bernard Katz, United Kingdom; Ulf von Euler, Sweden; Julius Axelrod, United States.

1969 -- Max Delbruck, United States; Alfred D. Hershey, United States; Salvador E. Luria, United States.

1968 -- Robert W. Holley, United States; Har Gobind Khorana, United States; Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States.

1967 -- Ragnar Granit, Sweden; Haldan Keffer Hartline, United States; George Wald, United States.

1966 -- Peyton Rous, United States; Charles Brenton Huggins, United States.

1965 -- Francois Jacob, France; Andre Lwoff, France; Jacques Monod, France.

1964 -- Konrad Bloch, United States; Feodor Lynen, Germany.

1963 -- Sir John Carew Eccles, Australia; Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, United Kingdom; Andrew Fielding Huxley, United Kingdom.

1962 -- Francis Harry Compton Crick, United Kingdom; James Dewey Watson, United States; Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins, United Kingdom.

1961 -- Greog von Bekesy, United States.

1960 -- Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia; Peter Brian Medawar, United Kingdom.

1959 -- Svero Ochoa, United States; Arthur Kornberg, United States.

1958 -- George Wells Beadle, United States; Edward Lawrie Tatum, United States; Joshua Lederberg, United States.

1957 -- Daniel Bovet, Italy.

1956 -- Andre Frederic Cournand, United States; Werner Fossmann, Germany; Dickinson W. Richards, United States.

1955 -- Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell, Sweden.

1954 -- John Franklin Enders, United States; Thomas Huckle Weller, United States; Chapman Robbins, United States.

1953 -- Hans Adolf Krebs, United Kingdom; Fritz Albert Lipmann, United States.

1952 -- Selman Abraham Waksman, United States.

1951 -- Max Theiler, South Africa.

1950 -- Edward Calvin Kendall, United States; Tadeus Reichstein, Switzerland; Philip Showalter Hench, United States.

1949 -- Walter Rudolf Hess, Switzerland; Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Portugal.

1948 -- Paul Hermann Mueller, Switzerland.

1947 -- Carl Ferdinand Cori, United States; Theresa Cori, United States; Bernardo Alberto Houssay, Argentina.

1946 -- Hermann Joseph Muller, United States.

1945 -- Sir Alexander Fleming, United Kingdom; Ernst Boris Chain, United Kingdom; Sir Howard Walter Florey, United Kingdom.

1944 -- Joseph Erlanger, United States; Herbert Spencer Gasser, United States.

1943 -- Henrik Carl Peter Dam, Denmark; Edward Adelbert Doisy, United States.

1942 -- The prize money was 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1941 -- The prize money was 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1940 -- The prize money was 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1939 -- Gerhard Domagk, Germany.

1938 -- Corneille Jean Francois Heymans, Belgium.

1937 -- Albert von Szent-Gyorgyi Nagyrapolt, Hungary.

1936 -- Sir Henry Hallett Dale, United Kingdom; Otto Loewi, Austria.

1935 -- Hans Spenmann, Germany.

1934 -- George Hoyt Whipple, United States; George Richards Minot, United States; William Parry Murphy, United States.

1933 -- Thomas Hunt Morgan, United States.

1932 -- Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, United Kingdom; Edgar Douglas Adrian, United Kingdom.

1931 -- Otto Heinrich Warburg, Germany.

1930 -- Karl Landsteiner, Germany.

1929 -- Christiann Eijkman, Netherlands; Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, United Kingdom.

1928 -- Charles Jules Henri Nicolle, France.

1927 -- Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria.

1926 -- Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Denmark.

1925 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1924 -- Willem Einthoven, Netherlands.

1923 -- Frederick Grant Banting, Canada; John James Richard Macleod, Canada.

1922 -- Archibald Vivian Hill, United Kingdom; Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Germany.

1921 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1920 -- Shack August Steenberg Krogh, Denmark.

1919 -- Jules Bordet, Belgium.

1918 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1917 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1916 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1915 -- The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund for this prize section.

1914 -- Robert Barany, Austria.

1913 -- Charles Robert Richet, France.

1912 -- Alexis Carrel, France.

1911 -- Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden.

1910 -- Albrecht Kossel, Germany.

1909 -- Emil Theodor Kocher, Switzerland.

1908 -- Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russia; Paul Ehrlich, Germany.

1907 -- Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, France.

1906 -- Camillo Golgi, Italy; Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Spain.

1905 -- Robert Koch, Germany.

1904 -- Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russia.

1903 -- Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark.

1902 -- Ronald Ross, United Kingdom.

1901 -- Emil Adolf von Behring, Germany.

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