The Payroll to Population Index measured the percentage of adults age 18 or older who work at least 30 hours per week for employers -- and not those who are self-employed, Gallup said.
The P2P index came in at 43.3 percent in February, down from 43.6 percent in January.
The index, which is at its lowest point since April 2011, stood at 43.6 percent in February 2012.
"That the 2013 P2P rate is slightly lower than the February 2012 rate indicates that there has been no growth in full-time jobs with an employer over the past year," Gallup said.
The results of the survey are not seasonally adjusted.
The report said Gallup's seasonally adjusted U.S. unemployment rate for February was 7.6 percent -- up from 7.3 percent in January, but down a full percentage point from February 2012.
The survey was conducted Feb. 1-28 and involved 26,561 phone interviews. The survey's margin of error was 1 percentage point, Gallup said.