The plant produces the Chevrolet Colorado and the GMC Canyon, both compact pickup trucks, USA Today reported Friday.
The earthquake, which struck last Friday, was followed by a tsunami that leveled towns along the northeast coast of Japan.
GM spokesman Chris Lee said the plant would close Monday and would "resume operations as soon as we can."
Japanese suppliers produce several electronics parts for GM's vehicles, but Lee did not specify which parts from Japan were in short supply.
Due to slow sales of GM's smaller pickup trucks, the assembly plant in Shreveport is already scheduled to shut permanently "no later than 2012," Lee said.