Boston, Baltimore and Washington have added jobs, but the rest of the 20 largest cities have seen decreases, the Joint Economic Committee said in a statement.
The biggest backslider was Los Angeles, followed by San Francisco, Miami-Fort Lauderdale and Chicago.
Rep. Kevin Brady, R-Texas, a member of the panel, said, "With a million fewer workers in our major cities today than when the stimulus began, I can't imagine how the White House can proclaim it as anything but a terrible disappointment."
The job study showed that government jobs in the 20 cities studied grew by 42,700, but there were 13 private sector jobs lost for every government job gained.
The study covered employment in the 20 major cities from March 2009 to August 2010.